EngDiary 0042 - Bottled Water

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A watercolor painting of a blonde girl drinking bottled water near a natural forest and a river. The scene includes lush green trees, a flowing river with clear water, and the girl standing by the riverbank. The girl has long blonde hair, is wearing casual outdoor clothing, and is holding a bottle of water to her lips. The background shows a dense forest with sunlight filtering through the trees, creating a serene and refreshing atmosphere.


Webber: Hi Alice, I wanted to talk to you about bottled water and its impact on the environment. As an environmental supporter, I believe we should consider the effects it has.

Alice: Hi Webber! I understand your concern, but I prefer bottled water because it’s convenient, quick, and hygienic. Plus, I’ve heard that it has health benefits from natural springs.

Webber: I see your point. However, the production and disposal of plastic bottles create significant environmental issues. The amount of plastic waste is enormous, and recycling rates are not as high as they should be.

Alice: That’s true, but aren’t there ways to improve recycling and reduce waste? I mean, bottled water is so easy to carry and use on the go.

Webber: Improving recycling is essential, but the best solution is to reduce our reliance on single-use plastics altogether. Using reusable water bottles can significantly cut down plastic waste.

Alice: But what about the hygiene aspect? Bottled water is sealed and safe to drink, while tap water might not always be clean.

Webber: In many places, tap water is strictly regulated and safe to drink. Additionally, using water filters can ensure cleanliness. It’s a small effort compared to the environmental benefits.

Alice: I hadn’t thought about that. But what about the health benefits of bottled water from natural springs?

Webber: While some bottled water does come from natural springs, the health benefits are often overstated. Tap water with a filter can provide the same hydration and mineral content.

Alice: You have a point. Maybe I should look into getting a good water filter. It might be better for the environment and just as healthy.

Webber: Absolutely! Small changes like this can make a big difference. Switching to reusable bottles and using water filters can help us protect the environment and reduce waste.

Alice: Thanks, Webber. You’ve given me a lot to think about. I’ll definitely consider making the switch.

Alice: Webber, I see your point, but consider this: countries like Italy and Germany, which are wealthy, have high consumption of bottled water. In contrast, in countries with poor sanitation, bottled water is often the safest option for drinking. This shows that bottled water has its value.

Webber: That’s a fair observation, Alice. However, in wealthier countries, the preference for bottled water often stems from marketing rather than necessity. Improving public perception of tap water could reduce this dependency.

Alice: I agree that marketing plays a role, but in places with poor sanitation, bottled water is crucial for safe drinking. How can we address that without relying on bottled water?

Webber: In regions with poor sanitation, the focus should be on improving the infrastructure for clean and safe tap water. This is a long-term solution that can provide sustainable access to safe water for everyone, reducing the need for bottled water.

Alice: But improving infrastructure takes time and resources. In the meantime, people need access to safe drinking water, and bottled water provides that.

Webber: You’re right, Alice. In the short term, bottled water can be necessary. However, we should simultaneously work on long-term solutions to improve water systems. NGOs and governments can collaborate to develop sustainable water projects.

Alice: That makes sense. Using bottled water as a temporary solution while working towards better infrastructure could be a balanced approach.

Webber: Exactly. We shouldn’t overlook the immediate needs, but our goal should be to ensure that everyone has access to clean water without relying on bottled water indefinitely.

Alice: I see your point. It’s about finding a balance and working towards a sustainable future. I’ll start considering how I can contribute to this change, both in my personal choices and in supporting better water infrastructure.

Webber: That’s great to hear, Alice. Every small effort counts, and together we can make a significant impact on our environment and health.

Alice: Webber, there’s something I haven’t mentioned. I recently started working on a marketing project for a bottled water company. My job is to convince people to buy regular water at a high price. We’ve come up with five marketing techniques to achieve this. I’d love to hear your thoughts.

Webber: Interesting, Alice. What are these marketing techniques?

Alice: The techniques we’re using are:

  1. Emphasizing purity and safety by highlighting rigorous testing and filtration processes.
  2. Associating the brand with a healthy and active lifestyle through endorsements by athletes and celebrities.
  3. Creating premium packaging that appeals to a sense of luxury and exclusivity.
  4. Promoting environmental sustainability by using recycled materials and supporting clean water initiatives.
  5. Leveraging social media influencers to reach younger audiences and create brand loyalty.

What do you think about these strategies?

Webber: These techniques are quite effective from a marketing standpoint. Let’s break them down one by one.

Purity and Safety: This is a strong point because people care deeply about what they consume. However, it’s important to ensure that the claims are honest and not misleading, as it can build or break trust with consumers.

Healthy Lifestyle Association: Using athletes and celebrities can significantly influence public perception. This strategy can make the product seem essential for a healthy life, even if the benefits are not unique to bottled water.

Premium Packaging: Luxury packaging can create a perception of higher value, which can justify a higher price point. It’s effective but should be balanced with the environmental impact of the packaging materials.

Environmental Sustainability: Promoting sustainability is critical. If the company genuinely supports environmental causes and uses recycled materials, it can appeal to environmentally conscious consumers. However, it’s important to avoid “greenwashing” — making false claims about sustainability.

Social Media Influencers: Influencers have a strong impact, especially on younger audiences. This can build a loyal customer base, but it’s important to choose influencers who genuinely align with the brand’s values to maintain authenticity.

Alice: Thanks for the detailed feedback, Webber. I see your point about the importance of honesty and authenticity in marketing. I’ll keep that in mind as we move forward with the project.

Webber: I’m glad to hear that, Alice. Balancing effective marketing with genuine values can create a sustainable and trustworthy brand. If you manage to do that, it can benefit both the company and the environment.

Alice: Absolutely. I’ll do my best to ensure our marketing aligns with these principles. Thanks for your insights, Webber.

Alice: Thanks for your advice, Webber. I’ll make sure our marketing aligns with these principles. However, the convenience of bottled water makes it hard to give up. What do you think the impact of bottled water on environmental resources is?

Webber: The impact is quite significant, Alice. The convenience of bottled water comes at a high environmental cost. Here are a few points to consider:

Plastic Production: Producing plastic bottles requires a lot of fossil fuels. It’s estimated that around 17 million barrels of oil are used annually just to produce bottled water for the United States alone.

Water Usage: It takes more water to produce a bottle of water than the amount of water it contains. This is due to the water needed in the production process of the plastic and the bottling process itself.

Transportation Emissions: Bottled water is often transported over long distances, which contributes to carbon emissions. Transporting heavy loads like water requires a lot of energy, adding to the carbon footprint.

Waste and Recycling Issues: Many plastic bottles end up in landfills or as litter. Even with recycling efforts, a large percentage of plastic bottles are not recycled properly. This leads to pollution and harm to wildlife.

Microplastics: As plastic bottles break down, they release microplastics into the environment. These tiny plastic particles can end up in oceans and other water bodies, affecting marine life and potentially entering the human food chain.

Alice: Wow, I didn’t realize the impact was so extensive. It’s definitely something to think about. How can we balance the need for convenience with reducing this environmental impact?

Webber: One way is to encourage the use of reusable water bottles. They can be just as convenient and are much better for the environment. Additionally, investing in public water infrastructure to ensure clean and safe tap water can reduce the need for bottled water.

Alice: That makes sense. It’s about finding sustainable alternatives and educating people on their benefits. I’ll definitely bring these points up in our next meeting.

Webber: Absolutely, Alice. It’s all about making informed choices and working towards long-term solutions. I’m glad we could discuss this.

Alice: Me too, Webber. Thanks for shedding light on the issue. I’ll definitely be more mindful of the environmental impact moving forward.


English Term Simple Introduction
Aquifer A body of permeable rock that can contain or transmit groundwater.
Brackish Water that has more salinity than freshwater but less than seawater.
Catchment Area from which water is collected by the natural landscape.
Condensation The process by which water vapor becomes liquid water.
Confluence The junction of two rivers, especially rivers of approximately equal width.
Desalination The process of removing salt from seawater.
Evaporation The process by which water changes from a liquid to a gas or vapor.
Estuary The tidal mouth of a large river, where the tide meets the stream.
Freshwater Water with low concentrations of dissolved salts.
Glacier A slowly moving mass of ice formed by the accumulation and compaction of snow.
Groundwater Water held underground in the soil or in pores and crevices in rock.
Hydrology The science dealing with the properties and distribution of water.
Iceberg A large floating mass of ice detached from a glacier or ice sheet.
Infiltration The process by which water on the ground surface enters the soil.
Irrigation The supply of water to land or crops to help growth.
Lagoon A shallow body of water separated from a larger sea by barrier islands or reefs.
Lake A large body of water surrounded by land.
Ocean A very large expanse of sea.
Percolation The movement and filtering of fluids through porous materials.
Precipitation Any form of water - liquid or solid - falling from the sky.
Reservoir A large natural or artificial lake used as a source of water supply.
River A large natural stream of water flowing in a channel to the sea, a lake, or another river.
Runoff The flow of water that occurs when excess stormwater, meltwater, or other sources flows over the Earth’s surface.
Saltwater Water that contains a significant concentration of dissolved salts.
Sediment Matter that settles to the bottom of a liquid.
Snowmelt Surface runoff produced from melting snow.
Spring A natural source of water formed when water from an aquifer flows to the Earth’s surface.
Stream A small, narrow river.
Surface Water Water that collects on the surface of the ground.
Tide The alternate rising and falling of the sea, usually twice in each lunar day at a particular place, due to the attraction of the moon and sun.
Tributary A river or stream flowing into a larger river or lake.
Vapor The gaseous state of a substance that is normally liquid or solid at room temperature.
Water Cycle The continuous movement of water on, above, and below the surface of the Earth.
Watershed An area of land that drains all the streams and rainfall to a common outlet.
Wetland Land consisting of marshes or swamps; saturated land.
Well A deep hole or shaft dug or drilled to obtain water.
Aqueduct A conduit or artificial channel for conducting water from a distance.
Basin A natural depression in the surface of the land often with a lake at the bottom of it.
Bog Wet, spongy ground with soil composed mainly of decayed vegetable matter.
Canal An artificial waterway constructed to allow the passage of boats or ships inland or to convey water for irrigation.
Channel A length of water wider than a strait, joining two larger areas of water, especially two seas.
Delta A landform at the mouth of a river where it splits into several streams to form a wetland.
Drought A prolonged period of abnormally low rainfall, leading to a shortage of water.
Floodplain An area of low-lying ground adjacent to a river, formed mainly of river sediments and subject to flooding.
Geyser A hot spring in which water intermittently boils, sending a tall column of water and steam into the air.
Harbor A place on the coast where vessels may find shelter, especially one protected from rough water by piers, jetties, and other artificial structures.
Hydrography The science of surveying and charting bodies of water, such as seas, lakes, and rivers.
Lagoon A shallow body of water separated from a larger body of water by barrier islands or reefs.
Mangrove A tree or shrub that grows in chiefly tropical coastal swamps that are inundated at high tide.
Meander A winding curve or bend of a river or road.
Monsoon A seasonal prevailing wind in the region of South and Southeast Asia, bringing rain.
Oasis A fertile spot in a desert where water is found.
Plume An elongated cloud or mass of something visible, such as smoke or water vapor, spreading from a source.
Rapids A fast-flowing and turbulent part of the course of a river.
Riparian Relating to or situated on the banks of a river.
Salinity The concentration of dissolved salts in water.
Seepage The slow escape of a liquid or gas through porous material or small holes.
Silt Fine sand, clay, or other material carried by running water and deposited as a sediment.
Source The place where a river or stream begins.
Stalactite A tapering structure hanging like an icicle from the roof of a cave, formed of calcium salts deposited by dripping water.
Stalagmite A mound or tapering column rising from the floor of a cave, formed of calcium salts deposited by dripping water.
Submerge To cause to be under water.
Surf The mass or line of foam formed by waves breaking on a seashore or reef.
Swamp An area of low-lying, uncultivated ground where water collects; a bog or marsh.
Tundra A vast, flat, treeless Arctic region of Europe, Asia, and North America in which the subsoil is permanently frozen.
Waterfall A cascade of water falling from a height, formed when a river or stream flows over a precipice or steep incline.
Waterway A river, canal, or other route for travel by water.
Weir A low dam built across a river to raise the level of water upstream or regulate its flow.
Whirlpool A rapidly rotating mass of water in a river or sea into which objects may be drawn, typically caused by the meeting of conflicting currents.
Abyssal Plain An underwater plain on the deep ocean floor.
Brine Water saturated or strongly impregnated with salt.
Cascade A small waterfall, typically one of several that fall in stages down a steep rocky slope.
Chute A steep, narrow slope or passage down which water flows.
Fjord A long, deep, narrow body of water that reaches far inland.
Hydrate A compound typically formed by the union of water with another substance.
Hydroelectric Relating to the generation of electricity using flowing water.
Icecap A covering of ice over a large area, especially on the polar region of a planet.
Littoral Relating to or situated on the shore of the sea or a lake.
Marsh An area of low-lying land which is flooded in wet seasons or at high tide, and typically remains waterlogged at all times.
Moraine A mass of rocks and sediment carried down and deposited by a glacier.
Overland Flow The movement of water over the land, downslope toward a surface water body.
Pelagic Relating to the open sea.
Permafrost Ground that remains completely frozen for at least two years straight.
Pool A small area of still water, typically one formed naturally.
Reservoir A large natural or artificial lake used as a source of water supply.
Rift A crack, split, or break in something, especially the Earth’s crust.
Saturation The state or process that occurs when no more of something can be absorbed, combined with, or added.
Seamount A mountain rising from the ocean seafloor that does not reach to the water’s surface.
Snowpack A mass of snow on the ground that is compressed and hardened by its own weight.
Spit A narrow point of land projecting into the sea.
Subsidence The gradual caving in or sinking of an area of land.
Transpiration The process by which moisture is carried through plants from roots to small pores on the underside